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Nearly all of his operas in this period were set to Metastasio's texts, despite the poet's dislike for his style of composition.
In Gluck accepted an invitation from Lord Middlesex to become house composer at London's King's Theatre , probably travelling to England via Frankfurt and in the company of the violinist Ferdinand Philipp Joseph von Lobkowitz, the son of Phillip Hyacinth.
The timing was poor, as the Jacobite Rebellion had caused much panic in London, and for most of the year, the King's Theatre was closed.
Six trio sonatas were the immediate fruits of his time. Gluck's two London operas, La caduta de' giganti and Artamene eventually performed in , borrowed much from his earlier works.
Gluck performed works by Galuppi and Lampugnani , who both had worked in London. A more long-term benefit was exposure to the music of Handel — whom he later credited as a great influence on his style — and the naturalistic acting style of David Garrick , an English theatrical reformer.
On 25 March, shortly after the production of Artamene , Handel and Gluck together gave a concert in the Haymarket Theatre consisting of works by Gluck and an organ concerto by Handel, played by the composer.
The years and brought Gluck two highly prestigious engagements. First came a commission to produce an opera for Pillnitz , performed by Pietro Mingotti 's troupe, to celebrate a royal double wedding that would unite the ruling families of Bavaria and Saxony.
Le nozze d'Ercole e d'Ebe , a festa teatrale , borrowed heavily from earlier works, and even from Gluck's teacher Sammartini. The success of this work brought Gluck to the attention of the Viennese court, and, ahead of such a figure as Johann Adolph Hasse , he was selected to set Metastasio's La Semiramide riconosciuta to celebrate Maria Theresa 's birthday.
Vittoria Tesi took the title role. On this occasion Gluck's music was completely original, but the displeasure of the court poet, Metastasio, who called the opera " archvandalian music", probably explains why Gluck did not remain long in Vienna despite the work's enormous popular success it was performed 27 times to great acclaim.
For the remainder of and Gluck travelled with Mingotti's troupe, contracting a venereal disease from the prima donna and composing the opera La contesa de' numi for the court at Copenhagen, where he repeated his concert on the glassharmonica.
In he abandoned Mingotti's group for another company established by a former member of the Mingotti troupe, Giovanni Battista Locatelli. The main effect of this was that Gluck returned to Prague on a more consistent basis.
For the Prague Carnival of Gluck composed a new opera, Ezio again set to one of Metastasio's works, with the manuscript located at the Lobkowicz Palace.
His Ipermestra was also performed in the same year. The other major event of Gluck's stay in Prague was, on 15 September , his marriage to Maria Anna Bergin, aged 18 years old, the daughter of a rich but long-dead Viennese merchant.
The year brought another major commission to Gluck, when he was asked to set Metastasio's La clemenza di Tito the specific libretto was the composer's choice for the name day celebrations of King Charles VII of Naples.
The opera was performed on 4 November at the Teatro di San Carlo , and the world-famous castrato Caffarelli took the role of Sextus.
For Caffarelli Gluck composed the famous, but notoriously difficult, aria "Se mai senti spirarti sul volto", which provoked admiration and vituperation in equally large measures.
According to one account, the Neapolitan composer Francesco Durante claimed that his fellow composers "should have been proud to have conceived and written [the aria]".
Durante simultaneously declined to comment whether or not it was within the boundaries of the accepted compositional rules of the time.
He wrote Le cinesi for a festival in and La danza for the birthday of the future Emperor Leopold II the following year.
In Gluck produced the groundbreaking ballet-pantomime Don Juan in collaboration with the choreographer Gasparo Angiolini ; the more radical Jean-Georges Noverre was involved for the first time?
By that time, Gluck created musical drama, based on Greek tragedy , with more compassion, influencing the latest style Sturm und Drang. Under the teaching of Gluck, Marie Antoinette developed into a good musician.
She learned to play the harp ,  the harpsichord and the flute. She sang during the family's evening gatherings, as she had a beautiful voice.
In Spring , she took under her patronage her former music teacher and introduced him to the Paris public. Gluck had gruff ways, demanding strict adherence from the cast when rehearsing.
The soprano Arnould was replaced. He insisted that the chorus, too, had to act and become a part of the drama — that they could no longer just stand there posing stiffly and without expression while singing their lines.
Gluck was assisted by Gossec , director of the Concert Spirituel. Marie Antoinette received a large share of the credit.
Gluck had long pondered the fundamental problem of form and content in opera. He thought both of the main Italian operatic genres, opera buffa and opera seria , had strayed too far from what opera should really be and seemed unnatural.
Opera buffa had long lost its original freshness. Its jokes were threadbare and the repetition of the same characters made them seem no more than stereotypes.
In opera seria , the singing was devoted to superficial effects and the content was uninteresting and fossilised.
As in opera buffa , the singers were effectively absolute masters of the stage and the music, decorating the vocal lines so floridly that audiences could no longer recognise the original melody.
Gluck wanted to return opera to its origins, focusing on human drama and passions and making words and music of equal importance. Francesco Algarotti 's Essay on the Opera proved to be an inspiration for Gluck's reforms.
He advocated that opera seria had to return to basics and that all the various elements—music both instrumental and vocal , ballet, and staging—must be subservient to the overriding drama.
The first result of the new thinking was Gluck's reformist ballet Don Juan , but a more important work was soon to follow. On 5 October , Orfeo ed Euridice was given its first performance, on a libretto by Calzabigi, set to music by Gluck.
Gluck tried to achieve a noble, Neo-Classical or "beautiful simplicity". The dances were arranged by Angiolini and the title role was taken by Guadagni, a catalytic force in Gluck's reform, renowned for his unorthodox acting and singing style.
Orfeo , which has never left the standard repertory, showed the beginnings of Gluck's reforms. His idea was to make the drama of the work more important than the star singers who performed it, and to do away with dry recitative recitativo secco, accompanied only by continuo that broke up the action.
Calzabigi wrote a preface to Alceste , which Gluck signed, setting out the principles of their reforms:. Joseph von Sonnenfels praised Gluck's tremendous imagination and the setting after attending a performance of Alceste.
The premiere on 19 April sparked a huge controversy, almost a war, such as had not been seen in the city since the Querelle des Bouffons.
The composers themselves took no part in the polemics, but when Piccinni was asked to set the libretto to Roland , on which Gluck was also known to be working, Gluck destroyed everything he had written for that opera up to that point.
On 2 August the French version of Orfeo ed Euridice was performed, more Rameau -like,  with the title role transposed from the castrato to the tenor voice.
This time Gluck's work was better received by the Parisian public. In the same year, Gluck returned to Vienna, where he was appointed composer to the imperial court 18 October after 20 years serving as Kapellmeister.
Over the next few years, the now internationally famous composer would travel back and forth between Paris and Vienna.
He became friends with the poet Klopstock in Karlsruhe. On 23 April , the French version of Alceste was given.
During the rehearsals for Echo et Narcisse in September , Gluck became dangerously ill. The opera was announced as a collaboration between the two composers; however, after the overwhelming success of its premiere on 26 April , Gluck revealed to the prestigious Journal de Paris that the work was wholly Salieri's.
In Vienna Gluck wrote a few more minor works, spending the Summer with his wife in Perchtoldsdorf , famous for its wine Heuriger.
Gluck suffered from melancholy and high blood pressure. Gluck dominated the season's proceedings with 32 performances. On 15 November , lunching with friends, Gluck suffered a heart arrhythmia and died a few hours later, at the age of Usually, it is mentioned Gluck had several strokes and became paralyzed on his right side.
Robl, a family doctor, had doubts as Gluck was still able to play his clavicord or piano in His death opened the way for Mozart at court, according to H.
Robbins Landon. Gluck was buried in the Matzleinsdorfer Friedhof. On 29 September  his remains were transferred to the Zentralfriedhof ; a tomb was erected containing the original plaque.
Although only half of his work survived after a fire in ,  Gluck's musical legacy includes approximately 35 complete full-length operas plus around a dozen shorter operas and operatic introductions, as well as numerous ballets and instrumental works.
His reforms influenced Mozart , particularly his opera Idomeneo His greatest French admirer would be Hector Berlioz , whose epic Les Troyens may be seen as the culmination of the Gluckian tradition.
Though Gluck wrote no operas in German, his example influenced the German school of opera, particularly Carl Maria von Weber and Richard Wagner , whose concept of music drama was not so far removed from Gluck's own.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Gluck disambiguation. Main article: List of compositions by Christoph Willibald Gluck.
Gluck , American professor of neuroscience Maxwell Henry Gluck — , American businessman, diplomat, thoroughbred horse breeder and philanthropist Michael Gluck born , American pianist Peter L.
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