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Go Game No Computer Player (Yet) VideoGo - Basic Rules
When a game concludes, the winner is determined by counting each player's surrounded territory along with captured stones and komi points added to the score of the player with the white stones as compensation for playing second.
Go was considered one of the four essential arts of the cultured aristocratic Chinese scholars in antiquity. The earliest written reference to the game is generally recognized as the historical annal Zuo Zhuan   c.
Despite its relatively simple rules , Go is extremely complex. Compared to chess , Go has both a larger board with more scope for play and longer games and, on average, many more alternatives to consider per move.
The number of legal board positions in Go has been calculated to be approximately 2. In English, the name Go when used for the game is often capitalized to differentiate it from the common word go.
The Korean word baduk derives from the Middle Korean word Badok , the origin of which is controversial; the more plausible etymologies include the suffix dok added to Ba to mean 'flat and wide board', or the joining of Bat , meaning 'field', and Dok , meaning 'stone'.
Go is an adversarial game with the objective of surrounding a larger total area of the board with one's stones than the opponent.
Contests between opposing formations are often extremely complex and may result in the expansion, reduction, or wholesale capture and loss of formation stones.
A basic principle of Go is that a group of stones must have at least one open point bordering the group, known as a liberty , to remain on the board.
One or more liberties enclosed within a group is called an eye , and a group with two or more eyes cannot be captured, even if surrounded.
The general strategy is to expand one's territory, attack the opponent's weak groups groups that can be killed , and always stay mindful of the life status of one's own groups.
Situations where mutually opposing groups must capture each other or die are called capturing races, or semeai.
Players may pass rather than place a stone if they think there are no further opportunities for profitable play.
In general, to score the game, each player counts the number of unoccupied points surrounded by their stones and then subtracts the number of stones that were captured by the opponent.
The player with the greater score after adjusting for komi wins the game. In the opening stages of the game, players typically establish positions or bases in the corners and around the sides of the board.
These bases help to quickly develop strong shapes which have many options for life self-viability for a group of stones that prevents capture and establish formations for potential territory.
Dame are points that lie in between the boundary walls of black and white, and as such are considered to be of no value to either side. Seki are mutually alive pairs of white and black groups where neither has two eyes.
After the forcing move is played, the ko may be "taken back" and returned to its original position. Some ko fights are referred to as picnic kos when only one side has a lot to lose.
A difference in rank may be compensated by a handicap—Black is allowed to place two or more stones on the board to compensate for White's greater strength.
Aside from the order of play alternating moves, Black moves first or takes a handicap and scoring rules, there are essentially only two rules in Go:.
Almost all other information about how the game is played is a heuristic, meaning it is learned information about how the game is played, rather than a rule.
Other rules are specialized, as they come about through different rule-sets, but the above two rules cover almost all of any played game.
Although there are some minor differences between rule-sets used in different countries,  most notably in Chinese and Japanese scoring rules,  these differences do not greatly affect the tactics and strategy of the game.
Except where noted, the basic rules presented here are valid independent of the scoring rules used. The scoring rules are explained separately.
Go terms for which there is no ready English equivalent are commonly called by their Japanese names. The two players, Black and White, take turns placing stones of their colour on the intersections of the board, one stone at a time.
The players may choose any unoccupied intersection to play on, except for those forbidden by the ko and suicide rules see below. Once played, a stone can never be moved and can be taken off the board only if it is captured.
When both players pass consecutively, the game ends  and is then scored. Vertically and horizontally adjacent stones of the same color form a chain also called a string or group ,  forming a discrete unit that cannot then be divided.
Chains may be expanded by placing additional stones on adjacent intersections, and can be connected together by placing a stone on an intersection that is adjacent to two or more chains of the same color.
A vacant point adjacent to a stone, along one of the grid lines of the board, is called a liberty for that stone.
When a chain is surrounded by opposing stones so that it has no liberties, it is captured and removed from the board.
Players are not allowed to make a move that returns the game to the previous position. This rule, called the ko rule , prevents unending repetition.
If White were allowed to play on the marked intersection, that move would capture the black stone marked 1 and recreate the situation before Black made the move marked 1.
Allowing this could result in an unending cycle of captures by both players. The ko rule therefore prohibits White from playing at the marked intersection immediately.
Instead White must play elsewhere, or pass; Black can then end the ko by filling at the marked intersection, creating a five-stone black chain.
If White wants to continue the ko that specific repeating position , White tries to find a play elsewhere on the board that Black must answer; if Black answers, then White can retake the ko.
A repetition of such exchanges is called a ko fight. While the various rule-sets agree on the ko rule prohibiting returning the board to an immediately previous position, they deal in different ways with the relatively uncommon situation in which a player might recreate a past position that is further removed.
See Rules of Go: Repetition for further information. A player may not place a stone such that it or its group immediately has no liberties, unless doing so immediately deprives an enemy group of its final liberty.
In the latter case, the enemy group is captured, leaving the new stone with at least one liberty. The Ing and New Zealand rules do not have this rule,  and there a player might destroy one of its own groups commit suicide.
This play would only be useful in a limited set of situations involving a small interior space. Because Black has the advantage of playing the first move, the idea of awarding White some compensation came into being during the 20th century.
This is called komi , which gives white a 6. Two general types of scoring system are used, and players determine which to use before play.
Both systems almost always give the same result. Territory scoring counts the number of empty points a player's stones surround, together with the number of stones the player captured.
Area scoring counts the number of points a player's stones occupy and surround. It is associated with contemporary Chinese play and was probably established there during the Ming Dynasty in the 15th or 16th century.
After both players have passed consecutively, the stones that are still on the board but unable to avoid capture, called dead stones, are removed.
Area scoring including Chinese : A player's score is the number of stones that the player has on the board, plus the number of empty intersections surrounded by that player's stones.
Territory scoring including Japanese and Korean : In the course of the game, each player retains the stones they capture, termed prisoners. Any dead stones removed at the end of the game become prisoners.
The score is the number of empty points enclosed by a player's stones, plus the number of prisoners captured by that player.
If there is disagreement about which stones are dead, then under area scoring rules, the players simply resume play to resolve the matter.
The score is computed using the position after the next time the players pass consecutively. Under territory scoring, the rules are considerably more complex; however, in practice, players generally play on, and, once the status of each stone has been determined, return to the position at the time the first two consecutive passes occurred and remove the dead stones.
For further information, see Rules of Go. Given that the number of stones a player has on the board is directly related to the number of prisoners their opponent has taken, the resulting net score, that is, the difference between Black's and White's scores, is identical under both rulesets unless the players have passed different numbers of times during the course of the game.
Thus, the net result given by the two scoring systems rarely differs by more than a point. While not actually mentioned in the rules of Go at least in simpler rule sets, such as those of New Zealand and the U.
Examples of eyes marked. The black groups at the top of the board are alive, as they have at least two eyes. The black groups at the bottom are dead as they only have one eye.
The point marked a is a false eye. When a group of stones is mostly surrounded and has no options to connect with friendly stones elsewhere, the status of the group is either alive, dead or unsettled.
A group of stones is said to be alive if it cannot be captured, even if the opponent is allowed to move first. Conversely, a group of stones is said to be dead if it cannot avoid capture, even if the owner of the group is allowed the first move.
Otherwise, the group is said to be unsettled: the defending player can make it alive or the opponent can kill it, depending on who gets to play first.
An eye is an empty point or group of points surrounded by one player's stones. If the eye is surrounded by Black stones, White cannot play there unless such a play would take Black's last liberty and capture the Black stones.
Such a move is forbidden according to the suicide rule in most rule sets, but even if not forbidden, such a move would be a useless suicide of a White stone.
If a Black group has two eyes, White can never capture it because White cannot remove both liberties simultaneously. If Black has only one eye, White can capture the Black group by playing in the single eye, removing Black's last liberty.
Such a move is not suicide because the Black stones are removed first. In the "Examples of eyes" diagram, all the circled points are eyes. The two black groups in the upper corners are alive, as both have at least two eyes.
The groups in the lower corners are dead, as both have only one eye. The group in the lower left may seem to have two eyes, but the surrounded empty point marked a is not actually an eye.
White can play there and take a black stone. It's about KB. It does not automatically add itself to your start menu or make a shortcut on the desktop.
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White 26 forces Black to capture two white stones with Next, the moves at White 28 and 30 each reduce Black's territory by one point.
Black 31 ataris the two white stones at 26 and 30, so White must connect at 32 to save them. Finally, Black 33 reduces White's territory on the left by one point.
The game ends when White blocks at Figure 12 show what the board looks like at the end of this game. White has one black stone in his prisoner pile, while Black has two white stones in his.
In Figure 13, each side places his prisoners in his opponent's territory. White places his one black prisoner the marked black stone inside Black's territory and Black places his two white prisoners the two marked white stones inside White's territory.
It is customary to rearrange the stones a bit to make the counting of territory simple and rapid. In Figure 14, the three marked black stones and the two marked white stones were moved.
Calculation of the size of the territories can now be made at a glance. Black has 23 points; White has 24 points. White wins by one point.
Questions and Answers After White 12 in Figure 8, why didn't Black try to escape with his marked stone? Black could try to escape by playing 1 in Diagram 22, but White would pursue him and the black stones would still be in atari.
If Black persists with 3,he can atari the marked white stone, but White captures three stones by taking Black's last liberty with 4.
Why doesn't White try this? The reason he doesn't try to escape is because he can't, unless Black blunders. If White extends to 1 in Diagram 23, he increases his liberties to three but Black pursues him with 2 and, after 4, White is at the end of his rope: he has no way to increase his liberties.
If White plays 5, Black ataris with 6 and captures with 8. However, Black must not play 2 from the outside as in Diagram White would then turn at 3 and now the two marked black stones have only two liberties, while the white group on the right has three liberties.
The game can be a casual pastime for the idle hour -- or a way of life. Michael Redmond, the only Western player to have won status as a top-grade professional player in Asia, when asked why he had devoted his life to go, replied, "Because I love the game.
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